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Memorandum of Association and the Foundation of a Company

Author Jon MillsJon Mills

6 min read
Better Business

Explore the importance of a memorandum of association in establishing a UK company. Learn about its key contents, from company name and objectives to share capital, and understand how careful drafting lays a solid foundation for growth and compliance.

Memorandum of Association and the Foundation of a Company

The memorandum of association is an essential document when establishing a company in the United Kingdom. It serves as a foundation upon which the entire company is built. In this article, we will dive into the key contents of the memorandum of association, the process of its preparation and drafting, as well as its legal standing and importance for shareholders.

Key Contents of Memorandum of Association

As the backbone of a UK company, the memorandum of association includes vital information that shapes its identity and purpose. Here are the key contents that every memorandum should encompass:

Company name and registered office

The memorandum should clearly state the company's name, providing it with a distinct identity in accordance with the Companies Act 2006. Additionally, the registered office address, where official communications will be sent, must be included.

Choosing the right company name is crucial as it represents the brand and creates a lasting impression on customers and stakeholders. The name should be unique, memorable, and reflective of the company's values and objectives. The registered office address, on the other hand, serves as the legal address of the company and is where important documents, such as legal notices and correspondence address from government authorities, will be sent.

Business objectives and scope

The memorandum outlines the company's primary objectives and defines the scope of its activities. This section helps stakeholders understand the company's purpose and aids in decision-making processes.

The business objectives should be carefully defined to ensure they align with the company's long-term vision and mission. These objectives serve as a guide for the company's strategic planning and help in determining the direction it should take. The scope of activities, on the other hand, specifies the industries or sectors in which the company will operate. This helps stakeholders, including potential investors and customers, understand the company's focus and expertise.

Share capital and shareholder information

Details about the share capital, including the total number of shares, their value, and the currency, must be specified. The memorandum also lists the initial shareholders, their names, addresses, and the number of shares each holds. Share capital plays a crucial role in determining the financial structure of a company. It represents the total value of shares issued and determines the ownership interest of each shareholder. The value of shares and the currency in which they are denominated should be clearly stated to avoid any confusion. The initial shareholders, often referred to as subscribers, are the individuals or entities who invest in the company at its inception. Their names, addresses, and the number of shares they hold provide transparency and accountability.

It is important to note that the memorandum of association can be amended or updated as the company evolves. Changes in company name, registered office, business objectives, or share capital can be made through a formal process, ensuring that the memorandum accurately reflects the company's current state.

Preparation and Drafting of Memorandum of Association

Creating a well-crafted memorandum of association requires careful consideration and attention to detail. Although there is no prescribed format, several steps can help ensure its accuracy and compliance:

  1. Consultation with experts

Seeking advice from legal professionals or experienced company formation agents can provide valuable guidance during the preparation phase. Their expertise can help avoid potential errors or oversights.

It is important to consult with experts who are well-versed in company law and have a thorough understanding of the requirements for drafting a memorandum of association. Their insights can help you navigate the legal complexities involved in this process.

During these consultations, you can discuss the specific needs and objectives of your company. The experts can provide tailored advice based on your unique circumstances, ensuring that your memorandum of association accurately reflects your business's intentions, including the issuance of a share certificate.

  1. Defining business objectives

The objectives of the company should be clearly defined, ensuring they align with the long-term goals and aspirations of the shareholders. Open dialogue and brainstorming sessions can help refine these objectives.

When defining your business objectives, it is essential to consider both short-term and long-term goals. Short-term objectives may focus on immediate targets and milestones, while long-term objectives may encompass broader visions and ambitions for the company's future.

Engaging in discussions with key stakeholders, such as shareholders and directors, can provide valuable insights into the company's objectives. By involving all relevant parties in the process, you can ensure that the memorandum of association accurately reflects the collective aspirations of the company.

  1. Engage in thorough research

To ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations, it is crucial to conduct comprehensive research. Familiarise yourself with the Companies Act 2006 and other applicable legislation, ensuring accurate inclusion of information.

Researching the legal requirements and regulations that govern the formation and operation of companies is a critical step in the preparation of a memorandum of association. This research will enable you to understand the legal framework within which your company will operate and ensure that your memorandum complies with all necessary provisions.

Additionally, thorough research will help you identify any specific clauses or provisions that may be required based on the nature of your business. For example, if your company operates in a highly regulated industry, there may be additional legal requirements that need to be addressed in the memorandum.

Once these steps are complete, the drafting process can begin. Care should be taken to present the information in a clear and concise manner, avoiding any ambiguity or confusion.

Drafting a memorandum of association requires attention to detail and precision. Each provision and clause should be carefully considered and drafted to accurately reflect the intentions and objectives of the company.

It is important to ensure that the language used in the memorandum is clear and easily understood by all parties involved. Avoiding jargon or complex legal terminology can help prevent any potential confusion or misinterpretation.

Throughout the drafting process, it is advisable to seek feedback from legal professionals or experienced individuals who can review the document for accuracy and compliance. Their input can help identify any areas that may need further clarification or adjustment.

Alteration and Amendment of Memorandum of Association

While the memorandum of association is a foundational document, it is not set in stone. As circumstances change, it may become necessary to alter or amend certain aspects of the memorandum. However, it is important to note that certain elements, like the company name and registered office, can only be changed through a formal process with the Companies House.

Memorandum of Association vs. Articles of Association

It is essential to differentiate between the memorandum of association and the articles of association, as they serve different purposes within a UK company. The memorandum outlines the company's basic details and objectives, while the articles of association provide specific regulations for the company's internal management and operations.

Understanding the difference and complementary nature

The memorandum of association and articles of association serve distinct roles within a company. The memorandum, often referred to as the company's 'birth certificate' or the certificate of incorporation, outlines its fundamental details, while the articles, or the 'rulebook', govern the company's internal operations.

In essence, the memorandum creates the company, detailing its name, registered office, type of company, and share capital. Conversely, the articles delve into the company's management details, such as director appointments, shareholder rights, and procedures for annual meetings.

These two documents harmonise to ensure a company's smooth operation. The memorandum sets the structure and purpose, while the articles detail internal governance, hence contributing to day-to-day functioning.

Interplay between Memorandum & Articles of Association

The memorandum of association and the articles of association interact seamlessly. The memorandum provides the company's identity and purpose, while the articles guide how to effectively achieve this purpose.

For example, the memorandum defines the company's activities, but the process of achieving these objectives is guided by the articles. Similarly, the memorandum provides initial share capital and shareholder details, but the rights attached to these shares and dividend distribution methods are dictated by the articles.

The memorandum of association carries significant legal standing and should be regarded as a binding agreement between the company and its shareholders. Any act or decision that falls outside the scope or objectives outlined in the memorandum may be deemed ultra vires and potentially null and void.

Importance of Memorandum of Association for Shareholders

For shareholders, the memorandum of association serves as a crucial point of reference. It provides them with clarity regarding the company's objectives, scope, and overall purpose. By understanding the memorandum, shareholders can make informed decisions and actively participate in shaping the company's future. This information is particularly vital when they decide to set up a limited company.


The memorandum of association lays the groundwork for a UK company, providing it with a solid foundation on which to build and grow. By defining the company's identity, objectives, and shareholder information, the memorandum ensures clarity and compliance. Careful preparation and attention to detail during the drafting process are imperative, and shareholders should recognise the importance of the memorandum in helping them make informed decisions. Understanding the legal standing and potential amendments of the memorandum can contribute to the long-term success and stability of the company.

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